Therapies

We utilize innovative therapies and procedures, based on the latest neuroscience research. Our cutting-edge techniques allow us to address your neurological issues at the most fundamental level. We harness every relevant part of your nervous system to stimulate and rebuild your neurological function. We assess all aspects of our problem, including metabolic, immune, environmental, and lifestyle factors where appropriate.

Our rehabilitation protocols are designed to restore fundamental aspects of neurological function, to allow you to properly adapt to and function in your world. Once baseline function in a pathway has been restored, we graduate our programs to facilitate integration of these pathways with other systems. It is not enough to help damaged pathways get back on their feet; we must also help them learn to play well with the rest of your nervous system. Our protocols are designed to not only get everything in your system working again, but also to get everything working well with each other.

Therapies 

Content describing our therapies will be coming soon. In the meantime, a small sample of the neuroscience research that supports our therapeutic approach is reproduced below.

Vestibular Therapy:

-rVOR Rehabilitation:

Traumatic brain injury and vestibulo-ocular function: current challenges and future prospects.

Vestibular Impairment in Dementia. 

Vestibulo-ocular function in anxiety disorders.

Vestibulo-ocular reflex abnormality in Parkinson’s disease detected by video head impulse test.

Cervico-ocular function in patients with spasmodic torticollis.

The relationship between vestibular function and topographical memory in older adults.

Vestibulo-ocular reflex function in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

-tVOR Rehabilitation:

Interaural translational VOR: suppression, enhancement, and cognitive control.

Gradient impact of cognitive decline in unilateral vestibular hypofunction after rehabilitation: preliminary findings.

Semicircular Canal Influences on the Developmental Tuning of the Translational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex.

-SVV Rehabilitation:

Treatment of vertical heterophoria ameliorates persistent post-concussive symptoms: A retrospective analysis utilizing a multi-faceted assessment battery.

Subjective visual vertical after treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

-Balance Rehabilitation:

Tailored balance exercises on people with multiple sclerosis: A pilot randomized, controlled study.

Multi-system balance training reduces injurious fall risk in Parkinson’s disease – A randomized trial.

Vision Therapy:

Visual problems associated with traumatic brain injury.

-Gaze Stabilization:

Gaze stabilization test: a new clinical test of unilateral vestibular dysfunction.

Vestibular rehabilitation outcomes in chronic vertiginous patients through computerized dynamic visual acuity and Gaze stabilization test.

Gaze Stabilization Test Asymmetry Score as an Indicator of Previous Concussion in a Cohort of Collegiate Football Players.

-Vergence:

Concurrent vision dysfunctions in convergence insufficiency with traumatic brain injury.

Binocular coordination of saccades during reading in children with clinically assessed poor vergencecapabilities.

Poor postural stability in children with vertigo and vergence abnormalities.

-Pursuits:

Deficits in predictive smooth pursuit after mild traumatic brain injury.

Saccades and smooth pursuit eye movements in central vertigo.

Quantitative oculomotor findings in migrainous patients.

-Saccades:

Inaccurate Saccades and Enhanced Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Suppression during Combined Eye-Head Movements in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain: Possible Implications for Cervical Vertigo.

Deficits in saccades and smooth-pursuit eye movements in adults with traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Saccadic impairment in chronic traumatic brain injury: examining the influence of cognitive load and injury severity.

Decreased Number of Self-Paced Saccades in Post-Concussion Syndrome Associated with Higher Symptom Burden and Reduced White Matter Integrity.

-Optokinetics:

The Effect of Optokinetic Stimulation on Perceptual and Postural Symptoms in Visual Vestibular Mismatch Patients.

Multimodal assessment of optokinetic visual stimulation response in migraine with aura.

Attentional distractibility by optokinetic stimulation in Alzheimer disease.

Visual-Vestibular Integration Therapy (VVIT):

Visual-vestibular processing deficits in mild traumatic brain injury.

Review of Vestibular and Oculomotor Screening and Concussion Rehabilitation.

The effect of virtual reality on visual vertigo symptoms in patients with peripheral vestibular dysfunction: a pilot study.

-Laser Head Tracking Therapies:

Assessment of vestibulo-ocular function without measuring eye movements.

Cervico-ocular coordination during neck rotation is distorted in people with whiplash-associated disorders.

Visual-Vestibular-Proprioceptive Integration Therapy (VVPIT):

-Eye-Head-Body Exercises:

Head-Eye Vestibular Motion Therapy Affects the Mental and Physical Health of Severe Chronic Postconcussion Patients.

Trunk motion visual feedback during walking improves dynamic balance in older adults: Assessor blinded randomized controlled trial.

Changes in Measures of Cervical Spine, Vestibulo-ocular Reflex, Dynamic Balance and Divided Attention Following Sport-Related Concussion in Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

-Visual-Vestibular-Somatotopic Remapping Exercises:

Abnormalities of Eye-Hand Coordination in Patients with Writer’s Cramp: Possible Role of the Cerebellum.

Disrupted superior collicular activity may reveal cervical dystonia disease pathomechanisms.

Sensorimotor training and cortical reorganization.

Gait Retraining:

-Multimodal Gait Protocols:

Outcomes following a locomotor training protocol on balance, gait, exercise capacity, and community integration in an individual with a traumatic brain injury: a case report.

Abnormal muscle activation patterns are associated with chronic gait deficits following traumatic brain injury.

Exergaming in a Moving Virtual World to Train Vestibular Functions and Gait; a Proof-of-Concept-Study With Older Adults.

The effect of augmented somatosensory feedback on standing postural sway.

Interactive Metronome Therapy:

-IM

Effects of interactive metronome training on postural stability and upper extremity function in Parkinson’s disease: a case study.

Effects of interactive metronome training on timing, attention, working memory, and processing speed in children with ADHD: a case study of two children.

Effects of interactive metronome training on upper extremity function, ADL and QOL in stroke patients.

Training effects of Interactive Metronome® on golf performance and brain activity in professional woman golf players.

Effects of interactive metronome therapy on cognitive functioning after blast-related brain injury: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

NeuroSensory Integration Therapy:

-NSI/SVI:

Vision training methods for sports concussion mitigation and management.

Neurorehabilitation applied to specific learning disability: Study of a single case.

Development of visual perception and attention, assessed by backward masking and application in children with epilepsy.

Sensorimotor integration of vision and proprioception for obstacle crossing in ambulatory individuals with spinal cord injury.

Laser and PhotoBioModulation Therapy:

-Apollo Laser:

-VieLight:

-InLight:

Photobiomodulation using low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for patients with chronic traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial study protocol.

Transcranial near-infrared laser therapy in improving cognitive recovery of function following traumatic brain injury

Multi-Watt Near-Infrared Phototherapy for the Treatment of Comorbid Depression: An Open-Label Single-Arm Study.

Photobiomodulation for traumatic brain injury and stroke.

Photobiomodulation and the brain: a new paradigm.

Low-level laser therapy rescues dendrite atrophy via upregulating BDNF expression: implications for Alzheimer’s disease.

Treating cognitive impairment with transcranial low level laser therapy.

Vibratory Therapy:

-Hypervibe:

-Peripheral Vibratory Stimulus:

Effects of Stochastic Resonance Whole-Body Vibration in Individuals with Unilateral Brain Lesion: A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial: Whole-Body Vibration and Neuromuscular Function.

Comparison of the Effectiveness of Whole Body Vibration in Stroke Patients: A Meta-Analysis.

Effects of adding whole-body vibration to routine day activity program on physical functioning in elderly with mild or moderate dementia: a randomized controlled trial.

Short-Term Effects of Rhythmic Sensory Stimulation in Alzheimer’s Disease: An Exploratory Pilot Study.

The effects of proprioceptive stimulation on cognitive processes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

Electrical Therapy:

-Targeted SSEP Stimulus:

Cranial Nerve Noninvasive Neuromodulation: New Approach to Neurorehabilitation

A novel neuromodulation technique for the rehabilitation of balance and gait: A case study.

Somatosensory Evoked Potentials and Central Motor Conduction Times in children with dystonia and their correlation with outcomes from Deep Brain Stimulation of the Globus pallidus internus.

Cranial nerve non-invasive neuromodulation improves gait and balance in stroke survivors: A pilot randomised controlled trial.

Abnormal cortical asymmetry as a target for neuromodulation in neuropsychiatric disorders: A narrative review and concept proposal.

External Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation for the Acute Treatment of Migraine: Open-Label Trial on Safety and Efficacy.

-Rebuilder:

Non-pharmacologic treatments for symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a systematic review.

Electrical stimulation as an adjunctive treatment of painful and sensory diabetic neuropathy.

Noninvasive and invasive neuromodulation for the treatment of tinnitus: an overview.

-TVNS:

Evidence of activation of vagal afferents by non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation: An electrophysiological study in healthy volunteers.

Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation acutely improves spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in healthy young men: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Hemicrania Continua: Beneficial Effect of Non-Invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation in a Patient With a Contraindication for Indomethacin.

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation modulates amygdala functional connectivity in patients with depression.

-TDCS:

Anodal frontal tDCS for chronic cluster headache treatment: a proof-of-concept trial targeting the anterior cingulate cortex and searching for nociceptive correlates.

Cognitive effects of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with working memory training in fibromyalgia: a randomized clinical trial.

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation as a Therapeutic Tool for Chronic Pain.

-Alpha Stim:

The Effectiveness and Risks of Cranial Electrical Stimulation for the Treatment of Pain, Depression, Anxiety, PTSD, and Insomnia: A Systematic Review.

Prospective Study of Brain Wave Changes Associated With Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation.

Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for chronic pain

-TENS:

Using TENS for pain control: the state of the evidence.

-IFC:

Brain stimulation methods for pain treatment.

NeuroTherapeutic Exercise and NeuroPerformance:

-NeuroRehabilitation coupled with Physical Exercise:

Physical exercise improves brain cortex and cerebellum mitochondrial bioenergetics and alters apoptotic, dynamic and auto(mito)phagy markers.

Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives.

Effects of Exercise on Physical and Mental Health, and Cognitive and Brain Functions in Schizophrenia: Clinical and Experimental Evidence.

The effectiveness of physical exercise as an intervention to reduce depressive symptoms following traumatic brain injury: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

Oxygen uptake on-kinetics before and after aerobic exercise training in individuals with traumatic brain injury.

The effectiveness of physical exercise as an intervention to reduce depressive symptoms following traumatic brain injury: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

Effects of endurance exercise training on the motor and non-motor features of Parkinson’s disease: a review.

Improved cognitive performance following aerobic exercise training in people with traumatic brain injury.

-NeuroRehabilitation for Athletic Performance:

Training Attentional Control Improves Cognitive and Motor Task Performance.

The athletes’ visuomotor system – Cortical processes contributing to faster visuomotor reactions.

Effects of postural control manipulation on visuomotor training performance: comparative data in healthy athletes.

Balance performance with a cognitive task: a continuation of the dual-task testing paradigm.

Soft Tissue Therapies:

-Active Myofascial Release:

The Effects of Myofascial Trigger Point Release on the Power and Force Production in the Lower Limb Kinetic Chain.

A comparison of the effect of the active release and muscle energy techniques on the latent trigger points of the upper trapezius.

Effectiveness of myofascial release: systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

-Instrument-Assisted Myofascial Release:

Comparison of Compressive Myofascial Release and the Graston Technique for Improving Ankle-Dorsiflexion Range of Motion.

The effects of instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization on active range of motion, functional fitness, flexibility, and isokinetic strength in high school basketball players.

The efficacy of instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization: a systematic review.

Articular Manipulation Therapies:

Impact of Spinal Manipulation on Cortical Drive to Upper and Lower Limb Muscles.

Changes in H-reflex and V-waves following spinal manipulation.

Measureable changes in the neuro-endocrinal mechanism following spinal manipulation.

Manipulation of Dysfunctional Spinal Joints Affects Sensorimotor Integration in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Brain Source Localization Study.